References

Age at Death

Age at death assessments are based on the following schemes;

Brooks ST and Suchey JM 1990 Skeletal age determination based on the os pubis: a comparison of the Ascadi-Nemsckri and Suchey-Brooks methods Human Evolution 5:227-238

Lovejoy CO et al 1985 Multifactorial determination of skeletal age at death: a method and blind tests of its accuracy.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 68.1 : 1-14.

Işcan MY, Loth SR, and Wright RK 1985 Age estimation from the rib by phase analysis: white females. Journal of Forensic Sciences 30.3 : 853-863.

Assessment of Sexual Maturation for juveniles taken from:

Lewis, Mary, Fiona Shapland, and Rebecca Watts. “On the threshold of adulthood: A new approach for the use of maturation indicators to assess puberty in adolescents from medieval England.” American Journal of Human Biology (2015).

Stature Estimation

Stature calculations are taken from Human skeletal remains : excavation, analysis, interpretation / Douglas H. Ubelaker. (1999) which are based on Trotter M 1970 Estimation of stature from intact long limb bones Personal identification in mass disasters.

The App will not allow measurements to be entered unless the relevant bone has been graded as at least Grade 1.

Measurements should be taken according to Martin-Saller indications.

Sex Determination

Sex assessment is divided into assessments from Skull, Pelvis and Measurements.

Skull and Pelvis assessments are taken from;

Buikstra, J.E. and Ubelaker, D.H., 1994. Standards for data collection from human skeletal remains.

Measurements are taken from;

Stewart TD 1979 Essentials of Forensic Anthropology Charles C Tomas Springfield Illinois

Selection of sex assessments for Juveniles under and over 15 years taken from;

Lewis, Mary, Fiona Shapland, and Rebecca Watts. “On the threshold of adulthood: A new approach for the use of maturation indicators to assess puberty in adolescents from medieval England.” American Journal of Human Biology (2015).

The assessment of M, M?, ?, F? and F are averaged across each area to give an overall assessment but the final Sex Assessment for the Skeleton is left for the user to select, either in the Sex Assessment page or Summary page.

Dentition

Dental scoring is from;

Connell, B 2004 Compiling a Dental Inventory in Brickley and McKinley eds Guidelines to the Standards for recording Human remains BABAO/IFA Technical Paper No 7 BABOA/IFA: Southampton, Reading page 8

Dental attrition scoring;

Brothwell, D. R. 1981 Digging up bones: the excavation, treatment, and study of human skeletal remains. Cornell University Press.

Wellcome Osteological Research Database Standards

Osteology Method Statement details the methods used to determine age, sex, stature and skeletal indices. It also describes how skeletal and dental pathology is classified, diagnosed and recorded.

WORD Database Manual